Stralsund

Stralsund è una città del Land tedesco del Meclemburgo-Pomerania Anteriore, nel circondario della Pomerania Anteriore-Rügen. Essa si trova sulla costa meridionale dello Strelasund, uno stretto del Mar Baltico che separa la terraferma dall’isola di Rügen, con cui la città è collegata tramite un lungo ponte (chiamato Rügendamm) e numerosi traghetti.

Le principali attività economiche di Stralsund riguardano l’industria legata ai cantieri navali, alla pesca e al turismo, che dagli ultimi anni del XX secolo ha iniziato uno sviluppo vertiginoso.

Stralsund venne fondata nel 1234 da coloni slavi provenienti da Rügen. Fu subito città libera, cui si applicava il diritto di Lubecca. Pochi anni dopo arrivarono commercianti tedeschi e la città iniziò a svilupparsi. Nel 1249 però Stralsund venne rasa al suolo da un esercito proveniente da Lubecca, i cui commerci venivano ostacolati dalla nuova città. In seguito a questo fatto, quando Stralsund venne ricostruita venne anche circondata di possenti mura, dotate di 11 porte d’accesso e 30 torri d’osservazione. Nel 1293 Stralsund entrò a far parte della Lega Anseatica e nel XIV secolo 300 imbarcazioni battenti la bandiera della città solcavano le acque del Mar Baltico.

Nel XVII secolo Stralsund venne coinvolta nella guerra dei trent’anni: il generale Albrecht von Wallenstein la cinse d’assedio nel 1628, fino a che non venne liberata da truppe svedesi. Alla fine della guerra, con la Pace di Vestfalia del 1648, la città passò sotto il controllo della Svezia insieme a gran parte della regione circostante. Durante la Grande guerra del nord, nel 1715, Carlo XII di Svezia guidò la difesa di Stralsund per un anno contro le truppe dell’Europa centrale. La città rimase sotto il controllo svedese fino al 1815, quando diventò un territorio prussiano.

Dal 1949 fino alla riunificazione tedesca del 1990 Stralsund fece parte della Germania Est.

 

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