Lubecca

 

Lubecca (in tedesco Lübeck), è una delle città della Germania cosiddette “anseatiche” in quanto appartenente, in passato, alla Lega Anseatica. Lubecca è la più grande città del Land Schleswig-Holstein (212.958 abitanti[1]) dopo Kiel.

Il centro storico della città, in parte ricostruito dopo i danni subiti in seguito ai bombardamenti del 1942 nel corso della Seconda guerra mondiale, è stato dichiarato patrimonio dell’umanità dall’UNESCO e presenta numerosi esempi di gotico baltico.

Nell’VIII secolo nell’area sorsero i primi insediamenti di popolazioni slave e già dal X secolo la città di Liubice fu, insieme a Oldenburg in Holstein (Starigard) il centro più importante degli abodriti. È probabile che all’epoca l’insediamento fosse una fortificazione.  Nel 1093 gli abodriti furono sconfitti e nel 1138 Lubecca venne incendiata dagli slavi.

Nel 1143 la città venne rifondata nella sua attuale posizione da Adolfo II, conte di Schauenburg e Holstein. Dopo un disastroso incendio la città fu nuovamente ricostruita nel 1159 da Enrico il Leone. Nel 1226 Lubecca divenne una città libera dell’Impero (freie Reichsstadt) sotto il diretto controllo dell’Imperatore.

Dal XIII al XV secolo Lubecca fu una delle città più importanti d’Europa, un grande centro commerciale e la “Regina della Lega Anseatica“. Nel Cinquecento l’importanza di Lubecca diminuì.

Il 6 novembre 1806 Lubecca fu al centro di una sanguinosa battaglia, durante la guerra della quarta coalizione, e, nonostante fosse città neutrale, subì gravi danni e saccheggi, conquistata prima dalle truppe della coalizione e successivamente da quelle napoleoniche, guidate dai marescialli Murat, Bernadotte e Soult.

La Legge della Grande Amburgo risale al 1937: Lubecca non era più una città libera (freie Reichsstadt). Da allora Lubecca è solo una città dello Schleswig-Holstein e non una città-stato come invece Amburgo o Brema.

Le distruzioni della Seconda guerra mondiale

Durante la Seconda guerra mondiale, Lubecca fu una delle prime città tedesche a subire il martirio del maximum use of fire, la nuova tecnica della tempesta di fuoco messa a punto dalla Gran Bretagna allo scopo di fiaccare il morale della popolazione tedesca. Arthur Harris, capo del Bomber Command, scelse Lubecca come primo esperimento in quanto priva di industrie belliche e dunque scarsamente protetta dalla contraerea.

La notte tra il 28 e il 29 marzo 1942, 234 apparecchi ricevettero l’ordine di distruggere la città in 140 minuti con 400 tonnellate di bombe, di cui due terzi incendiarie. Il Duomo e l’80% del centro storico vennero danneggiati, soprattutto il quartiere più antico intorno alla chiesa di Santa Maria, per un totale di circa 1500 case e 130 chilometri di facciate. Morirono 320 persone.[2]

Lubecca produce il miglio marzipane in Germania.

Vicino al centro, c’e’ un albergo che esiste dal 1210.

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