Segreto aziendale: obbligo riservatezza per dipendenti

Da PMI del 13 dicembre 2017

L’art. 2105 c.c. vieta al lavoratore di divulgare notizie attinenti all’azienda e ai suoi metodi di produzione, o di farne uso in modo da recarle danno o pregiudizio. Tuttavia, è importare ricordare che secondo un orientamento dottrinale il diritto al segreto è diverso rispetto a quello alla riservatezza. Mentre quest’ultimo consiste nel potere di impedire a terzi l’accesso a spazi privati e preesiste al contratto di lavoro, il primo consiste nella pretesa a che le notizie di cui il terzo sia venuto a conoscenza non siano divulgate, e trova fondamento nel contratto di lavoro.

=> Guida contratti aziendali: obblighi dei lavoratori

Obbligo di non concorrenza

Secondo l’orientamento prevalente, inoltre, con i termini riservatezza e segreto si fa riferimento a ciò che non è di dominio pubblico. La dottrina considera il divieto introdotto dall’art. 2105 c.c. come un dovere connesso all’obbligo di non concorrenza, poiché come quest’ultimo è teso a tutelare l’azienda dai vantaggi che il lavoratore o i terzi potrebbero trarre dalle informazioni giunte all’esterno dell’impresa stessa.

=> Patto di non Concorrenza Impresa – Lavoratore: cos’è

La prima questione da affrontare è stabilire quali siano le informazioni protette, nelle quali comunque non si annoverano le cognizioni tecniche e specialistiche che fanno parte del bagaglio professionale del lavoratore (Cass. n. 5708/1985). La giurisprudenza è concorde nel ritenere che la norma debba essere interpretata in senso ampio e, cioè riferita a qualsiasi dato influente sull’attività concorrenziale del datore di lavoro, sia di carattere tecnico, amministrativo o commerciale.

A favore di una interpretazione ancora più ampia si osserva che all’espressione “metodi di produzione” fa da contraltare quella ben più ampia e generica di “organizzazione dell’impresa” che dovrebbe escludere dalla sfera applicativa dell’art. 2105 c.c. le sole informazioni relative agli aspetti meramente finanziari ed economici.

Si è recentemente osservato come la norma imponga di escludere la verifica caso per caso del carattere segreto o riservato della notizia: se essa riguarda l’organizzazione dell’impresa o i suoi metodi di produzione ne sono comunque vietati l’uso pregiudizievole e la divulgazione. L’obbligo di segreto di cui all’art. 2105 c.c., cosiddetto segreto aziendale, non costituisce una specificazione dell’obbligo di segreto professionale sancito dall’art. 622 c.p., in quanto le fattispecie regolate hanno oggetto e destinatari parzialmente diversi.

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